Engineering: Fully Funded M2A ENGD Scholarship: Corrosion performance and lacquerability

  • Master
  • Full cost of UK tuition and annual stipend.
  • 3 April 2022

Engineering: Fully Funded M2A ENGD Scholarship: Corrosion performance and lacquerability of passivated low tin coatings at Swansea University

Start date: October 2022

Expected interview date: May 2022

Academic supervisors: Dr Natalie Wint and Dr Eifion Jewell

Industrial supervisors: Mark Mainwaring and James Edy

Sponsoring company: TATA Steel


Steel offers an economical and sustainable option for packaging and is used in numerous applications including food, beverage, and aerosol containers. Electroplated tin and chromium has been used for the corrosion protection of steel packaging for over 60 years and offers an effective system. However, with hexavalent chromium being a major component of the electrolyte for tinplate passivation and Electrolytic Chromium Coated Steel (ECCS), the requirements for REACH compliance place many constraints on manufacturers of steel packaging material.

ECCS consists of a chromium coating just 20nm (50mg.m-2) thick and as well as having good corrosion resistance also offers an excellent surface for the adhesion of organic lacquers that are used for additional protection and aesthetics. ECCS is also very economical due to the thin nano-chromium coating. Although trivalent chromium replacements for ECCS are currently in the process of commercialisation there are still strategic questions into other methods of providing suitable corrosion resistance and adequate lacquering of tin mill products as a replacement for ECCS.  The increasing cost of tin and the fact that the lowest coating weight is ~1.0g.m-2 mean a direct swap to tinplate is currently uneconomical.

This project will investigate the use of low tin coatings ( <1.0g.m-2), incorporating a Chromium Free Passivation Alternative (CFPA) treatment, as an alternative to ECCS without the high capital expenditure required for the construction of a new trivalent chromium coating production lines. The coating will need to provide corrosion resistance, as well as providing a suitable surface on which to apply an organic lacquer overcoat or laminate.

Project Aims:

  • To investigate the corrosion and lacquerability of low tin coating chrome free tinplate (CFPA).
  • To compare the corrosion performance of free tin CFPA with conventional tinplate that is used in conjunction with a hexavalent chromium pretreatment, as well as with ECCS.
  • Investigate the performance of low Tin coating, chrome free tinplate for laminate applications.
  • To ascertain the levels to which tin coating weight can be reduced without reducing product performance
Swansea University
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Swansea University

Swansea, is a coastal city and county, officially known as the City and County of Swansea in Wales.

All Scholarships from Swansea University


Candidates must normally hold a minimum undergraduate degree at 2.1 level (or Non-UK equivalent as defined by Swansea University), or a combination of degree and equivalent experience to the same level.

We would normally expect candidates to have met the University’s English Language requirements (e.g. IELTS 6.5 overall with 5.5+ in each component) by point of application.

Candidates must have the legal right to live/work in the UK at the start of their studies (student visas do not apply).

Full eligibility criteria can be found at

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The scholarship covers the full cost of UK tuition fees and a stipend of £20,000 p.a. for a period of four years.


Please see our website for more information.

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