Engineering: Fully Funded M2A EngD at Swansea: High Temperature Normalisation

  • Phd
  • Full cost of UK tuition fees, plus a stipend
  • 30 April 2021
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Engineering: Fully Funded M2A EngD Scholarship: High Temperature Normalisation: The Impact of Scale Growth on Surface Cosmetics and Performance of Carbon Steel Conveyance Tubes

Start date: October 2021

Expected Interview Date: May 2021

Academic supervisor: Dr A Das and Professor D Penney
Industrial supervisor: Dr C Owen

Tata Steel‚Äôs low carbon steel conveyance tubes undergo a 900¬įC normalisation to remove an undesirable heat affected zone caused by high frequency induction welding. This reheating however, generates significant surface conditioning issues and instigates severe processing inefficiencies due to insufficient protection from high temperature oxidation.

Scale growth on the surface of the tube from normalisation, causes unwanted spallation of subsequent added value coatings compromising Install 235 tube as a high performance, hot formed product. This project aims to improve surface quality and prevent spallation and through delivering a uniform coating, reduce yield loss and failures whilst providing a marketability benefit for conveyance products.

Project Aims:
This project will combine high temperature furnace replication experiments with advanced imaging techniques to discover the factors influencing scale growth and the effects of novel preventative coatings on surface quality. Techniques include SEM, EDS, XRD, Profilometry, White-Light Interferometry, Advanced Microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy.

In addition, the successful applicant will work jointly with TATA Steel (Port Talbot) to investigate how methodologies so developed may be applied to steel slab, used as feedstock for tube production.

  • To investigate how the mill processing conditions impact surface quality after normalisation due to scale growth.
  • To determine suitable methods in which surface quality may be improved, due to alterations in the thermal cycle or through coating solutions prior to reheating.
  • Develop new techniques and technologies to assess product quality and facilitate methods of improving adhered oxide remnant after descaling.
  • To analyse scale reduction due to new coating solutions before optimising subsequent preventative solutions for the improvement of surface finish of the Tata conveyance products.
  • A comprehensive analysis of the causes of surface delamination and the impact of furnace conditions on cosmetic issues due to scale.
  • Optimisation of current and novel coating solutions to improve the surface quality of the conveyance tubes.
  • Development of a new and improved application technique to enhance coating performance and provide a high-quality surface finish to the steel tubes.
Swansea University
This is a scholarship by

Swansea University

Swansea, is a coastal city and county, officially known as the City and County of Swansea in Wales.

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We welcome applications from candidates with a degree (minimum level 2:1) in in a relevant discipline or a combination of degree and equivalent experience to the same level.

We would normally expect candidates to have met the University’s English Language requirements (e.g. IELTS 6.5 overall with 5.5+ in each component) by point of application. 

Due to funding restrictions, this scholarship is not open to ‚ÄėInternational‚Äô candidates.


Do you wish to become an international student next year?
Demonstrate your English skills with IELTS.


The scholarship covers the full cost of UK tuition fees, plus a tax free stipend of £20,000 p.a. for a period of four years.


Please visit our website for more information.
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